Fixed interest rate
Risk control through specific processes and indicators allows to limit potential adverse financial impacts while optimizing the debt structure with an adequate degree of flexibility. Here we can see that the volatility that characterized financial markets during the first phase of the pandemic, in many cases returned to pre-COVID-19 levels and was offset by effective risk mitigation actions through derivative financial instruments.
1.2 Foreign exchange rate risk
Foreign exchange rate risks are primarily inherent to the following transactions:
- Debt contracted by Group companies denominated in currencies other than those in which their cash flows are indexed.
- Payments to be made in currencies other than those in which their cash flows are indexed, for material purchases associated to projects and payment of corporate insurance policy premiums, amongst others.
- Income of the Group’s companies directly linked to the fluctuation of currencies other than those of its own cash flows.
- Cash flows from foreign subsidiaries to parent companies in Chile exposed to foreign exchange rate variations.
To mitigate the foreign exchange rate risk, the hedging policy of the Enel Américas Group regarding foreign exchange rates is based on cash flows and aims at maintaining a balance between US$-indexed flows, or local currencies if there are any, and the level of assets and liabilities in such currency. The objective is to minimize the exposure of cash flows to foreign exchange rate variations.
The instruments currently used in compliance with the policy are cross-currency swaps and foreign exchange rate forwards. Similarly, the policy seeks to refinance debt in each company’s operating currency.
During the fourth quarter of 2020, exchange rate risk management continued in the context of compliance with the risk management policy mentioned above, without difficulty accessing the derivatives market. It is worth noticing that the volatility that characterized financial markets during the first phase of the pandemic, in many cases returned to pre-COVID-19 levels and was offset by risk mitigation actions through derivative financial instruments.
1.3 Commodities risk.
The Enel Américas Group might be exposed to the risk of price variations of certain commodities, primarily through:
- Fuel purchases in the process of electric energy generation.
- Spot energy purchases in local markets.
In order to reduce the risk under extreme drought conditions, the Group has designed a commercial policy that defines sale commitment levels in line with the capacity of its generating centrals during a dry year, by including risk mitigation clauses in some contracts with free clients. In the case of regulated clients subject to long-term tender processes, indexing polynomials are determined in order to reduce commodity exposure.
In consideration of the operative conditions confronted by the electricity generation market, plus the drought and commodity price volatility in international markets, the Company is continuously checking the convenience of hedging the impact of these price variations in its income.
As of December 31, 2020, there are no operations to buy or sell energy futures for the purpose of hedging the procurement portfolio.
As of December 31, 2019, 5.28 GWh of energy futures purchases for the purpose of hedging the procurement portfolio have been settled during the year.
Thanks to the mitigation strategies implemented, the Group was able to minimize the effects of commodity price volatility in the third quarter 2020 results.
1.4 Liquidity Risk
The Group maintains a liquidity policy that consists in contracting long-term credit commitment facilities and temporary financial investments for amounts sufficient to support the projected needs of a given period, which, in turn, is a function of the overall situation and expectations of the debt and capital markets.
The above-mentioned projected needs include maturities of net financial debt; namely, after financial derivatives. For additional information regarding the characteristics and the terms and conditions of such financial debt and financial derivatives (see notes 20, 21 and 23).
As of December 31, 2020, the Enel Américas Group held a liquidity position of MUS$ 1,507 million in cash and other equivalents. As of December 31, 2019, the Enel Américas Group’s liquidity position totaled MUS$ 1,939 million in cash and cash equivalents and MUS$ 706 million in unconditionally available long-term lines of credit.
1.5 Credit Risk
The Enel Américas Group monitors its credit risks continuously and in detail.
Commercial accounts receivable:
In relation to the credit risks of accounts receivable from commercial activities, this is a risk that has been historically quite limited since the short collection term afforded our clients prevents significant individual accumulation. The foregoing is applied to both our electricity generation and distribution lines of business.
In our electricity generation line of business, in certain countries, when confronted to payment defaults it is possible to cut off supply, and almost every contract establishes non-payment as a cause for contract termination. To that effect, we continuously monitor the credit risk and measure the maximum amounts exposed to payment risk, which, as said earlier, are limited.
In the case of our electricity distribution companies, cutting access to electricity, in all cases, is the attribution of our companies in case of payment default on part of our customers, which is applied in accordance with the regulations in force in each country, which facilitates the process of evaluation and control of credit risk, which by the way is also limited.
Assets of a financial nature:
Cash surpluses are invested in top domestic and foreign financial institutions (inasmuch as possible with a risk classification of investment grade or equivalent) with pre-established limits per institution.
In our selection of banks for investments, we consider those ranked with investment grade according to the three top international risk classification agencies (Moody’s, S&P and Fitch).
Our placements may be backed up with treasury bonds of those countries in which we operate and/or bank notes issued by top banks, preferring the latter since they offer better returns (always framed within current placement policies).
It should be noted that downward macroeconomic scenarios due to the COVID-19 effect did not have a significant impact on the quality of commercial receivables. In particular, the results of specific internal analyses have shown that there is no statistical correlation between the main economic indicators (GDP, unemployment rate, etc.) and solvency.
1.6 Risk Management
The Enel Américas Group prepares a Value at Risk measurement for its own debt positions and financial derivatives, with the purpose of monitoring the risk assumed by the company, thus circumscribing Income Statement volatility.
The portfolio of the positions included for the purposes of calculating the present Value at Risk, is comprised of:
- Financial debt.
- Derivatives for debt hedging
The calculated Value at Risk represents the possible value variation of the above-described positions portfolio within one day and with 95% certainty. To that effect we have studied the volatility of the risk variables that affect the value of the position’s portfolio, in relation to the Chilean peso, which includes:
- The USS Libor rate of interest.
- The various currencies in which our companies operate, the habitual local indices of bank practices.
- The exchange rates of the different currencies implied in the calculation.
The Value at Risk calculation is based on the extrapolation of future market value scenarios (one quarter out) of the risk variables based on real observations for the same period (quarter) through a 5-year period.
The Value at Risk for the next quarter, with 95% confidence level, is calculated as the percentile of the most adverse 5% of the possible quarterly variations.
Considering the scenarios described above the Risk Value in a quarter, of the above-mentioned positions, is attributable to US$ 407 million.
This value represents the potential increase in the debt and derivatives portfolio, therefore this value at risk is intrinsically related, among other factors, to the value of the portfolio at the end of each quarter.